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Eskrima and Kali are umbrella terms for the traditional martial arts of the Philippines that emphasize weapon-based fighting with sticks, knives and other bladed weapons, and various improvised weapons. It also includes hand-to-hand combat and weapon disarming techniques.
The most basic and common weapon in eskrima is the yantok. They are typically constructed from rattan, an inexpensive stem from a type of Southeast Asian vine. Hard and durable yet lightweight, it shreds only under the worst abuse and will not splinter like wood, making it a safer training tool. This aspect makes it useful in defence against blades. The participants are skilled enough to parry and counterstrike, showing respect in not intentionally hitting the training partner. In North America and Europe, eskrima practitioners wear head and hand protection while sparring with rattan sticks, or otherwise use padded batons. Some modern schools use sticks made out of aluminium or other metals, or modern high-impact plastics.
The daggers are approximately made as follows. The basic shape of the blade is made by a laser CNC machine. It is burned from spring steel. The semi-finished blade follows then in the groove cutter, where the cutting edge and the groove are milled. The blade is then oil-quenched and tempered to the desired hardness. Then the guard and pommel is attached to the blade tang. The tang is usually peened at the end (behind the pommel) and the cross-guard hard soldered with brass. Hardwood plates are placed under the handle wrapping from genuine cowhide so that the handle is sufficiently robust for a safe grasp. The steels surfaces obtain the desired finish in the end - with a wire brush or with a felt disc with polishing paste.