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The rear side is black painted. The Crusader Shield is equipped with solid grip wrapped in leather, stuffed forearm pad and a leather belt over the forearm for a safe use in combats.
The Crusades had an enormous influence on the European Middle Ages. At times, much of the continent was united under a powerful Papacy, but by the 14th century, the development of centralized bureaucracies (the foundation of the modern nation state) was well on its way in France, England, Spain, Burgundy, and Portugal, and partly because of the dominance of the church at the beginning of the crusading era. Although Europe had been exposed to Islamic culture for centuries through contacts in Iberian Peninsula and Sicily, much knowledge in areas such as science, medicine, and architecture was transferred from the Islamic to the western world during the crusade era.
In the case of hand-forged blade our blacksmith takes the already rolled spring steel and forges it with hand on the anvil or under the monkey (drop hammer). By forging becomes the steel more compacted (denser). Industrially rolled spring steel blades are made by cutting steel plate into strips under drop shears. Then they are ground or milled/grooved and without further forging directly put into the annealing furnace and hardened in oil bath. The qualities of both kinds of blades do not differ from each other much since the industrial rolling is already very good. On forged blades usually have forge traces, which give them an authentic and unique look.