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A shield boss, or umbo, is a round, convex or conical piece of material at the centre of a shield. Shield bosses are usually made of thick metal but could also be made of wood. The boss was originally designed to deflect blows from the centre of round shields, though they also provided a place to mount the shield's grip.
As time went on and heater shields with curved bodies became more popular, and enarmes superseded the bar grip, the boss became more of an ornamental piece. Often, bosses are not present on non-circular shields due to the differences in technique; with a round shield, one makes a punching motion towards an oncoming blow, while with a heater or kite shield, attacks are blocked by pivoting the shield about the body. A boss provides a significant advantage for deflecting blows when using a punching motion, but is not very effective when using a pivot to block an attack.
Dear customers from Switzerland, we are very sorry that we cannot deliver swords, daggers, sabres, maces, combat axes, flails etc. to your country. We meet with bureaucratic obstacles at all products that either are or just look as a weapon again and again. We receive all consignments to Switzerland automatically back with an explanation "subject to the import permit." Our logistics partners told us the following: "both goods that are sold only to persons over 18 years and goods that merely look as weapons are subject to import permit. (For example: toy guns are sellable without restrictions in Switzerland, BUT are subject to import permit issued by the Swiss authorities!)". We have found only the following solutions so far: (1) The customer secures collection at our address in the Czech Republic himself (his logistic partner can handle this procedure better), (2) the customer gives us a delivery address in the EU. The disadvantage is that we have to charge the VAT tax in both cases.