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A shield boss, or umbo, is a round, convex or conical piece of material at the centre of a shield. Shield bosses are usually made of thick metal but could also be made of wood. The boss was originally designed to deflect blows from the centre of round shields, though they also provided a place to mount the shield's grip. As time went on and heater shields with curved bodies became more popular, and enarmes superseded the bar grip, the boss became more of an ornamental piece. Often, bosses are not present on non-circular shields due to the differences in technique; with a round shield, one makes a punching motion towards an oncoming blow, while with a heater or kite shield, attacks are blocked by pivoting the shield about the body. A boss provides a significant advantage for deflecting blows when using a punching motion, but is not very effective when using a pivot to block an attack.
In the case of hand-forged blade our blacksmith takes the already rolled spring steel and forges it with hand on the anvil or under the monkey (drop hammer). By forging becomes the steel more compacted (denser). Industrially rolled spring steel blades are made by cutting steel plate into strips under drop shears. Then they are ground or milled/grooved and without further forging directly put into the annealing furnace and hardened in oil bath. The qualities of both kinds of blades do not differ from each other much since the industrial rolling is already very good. On forged blades usually have forge traces, which give them an authentic and unique look.